DIÁLOGO 3: “URBAN 4.S: URBAN SYSTEMS AND SENSORS STIMULATING SMARTER CITIZENS”
INCLUI A APRESENTAÇÃO E DISCUSSÃO DE PROJECTOS EM CURSO POR ESTUDANTES DO IST
19 DEZEMBRO 2013, 16H-20H
SPORT CLUBE INTENDENTE
LARGO DO INTENDENTE 52, LISBOA
"Diálogos Urbanos: Risco e Resiliência" é uma série de workshops com o objectivo de aprofundar o debate sobre “riscos e resiliência” em contextos urbanos de elevada vulnerabilidade, sendo implementada em estreita colaboração com a iniciativa “Laboratórios na Rua”, http://in3.dem.ist.utl.pt/narua/. Pretende-se facilitar a compreensão da cidade como uma rede de “laboratórios vivos” e facilitar a socialização entre estudantes e investigadores com as comunidades urbanas mais vulneráveis, estimulando intercâmbios sociais, culturais, técnicos e económicos e aproximando realidades e saberes distintos. Os workshop têm por objectivo facilitar a mobilização de atores, o diálogo disciplinar e o cruzamento de saberes, orientados para a resolução de problemas concretos em contextos urbanos vulneráveis.
DIÁLOGO 3 - “URBAN 4.S: URBAN SYSTEMS AND SENSORS STIMULATING SMARTER CITIZENS”
O terceiro evento, a ter lugar a 19 de Dezembro de 2013 no Sport Clube do Intendente, tem por base projetos em curso, conduzidos por estudantes e investigadores universitários, sobretudo na zona da Mouraria. A discussão terá por base dinâmicas de mobilização de atores sociais em bairros críticos, assim como a formação e capacitação de recursos humanos, de modo a contribuir para clarificar de que forma o desenvolvimento de estratégias baseadas em conhecimento pode facilitar a modernização de zonas urbanas de elevada vulnerabilidade, incluindo a sua resiliência socioeconómica e formas de inovação pelos utilizadores.
O diálogo realiza-se no quadro de trabalho de projeto experimental de engenharia em contextos distintos. Incluem-se projetos de introdução à engenharia por estudantes do 1º ano de Engenharia Mecânica do IST, assim como projetos de estudantes do mestrado e de doutoramento do IST.
No primeiro caso, os estudantes do 1º ano de Engenharia “observaram” usabilidades típicas da zona da Mouraria, em Lisboa, e propuseram novos produtos e sistemas, após discussão com a população local.
No caso dos estudantes de mestrado, o desafio foi centrado na utilização de sensores para facilitar o acesso a mais e melhor informação pelos cidadãos. Foram estudadas soluções para facilitar a alteração de hábitos, praticas e comportamentos, com enfâse na zona da Mouraria. Em particular, a adopção de praticas e hábitos de baixo consumo de energia é discutida com base em projetos específicos em espaços públicos.
Os estudantes de doutoramento apresentarão alguns trabalhos em curso sobre análise e concepção de sistemas urbanos tendo por base recentes avanços conceptuais e empíricos relativamente a sistemas complexos de engenharia.
Parte 1, 16h00: “Engineering Mouraria”, projetos por estudantes do 1º ano do IST
Parte 2, 17h00: “Sensing the city”, projetos por estudantes de mestrado do IST
Parte 3, 18h30: “URBAN Sensors and systems”, projetos de doutoramento do IST
Centro de Estudos em Inovação, Tecnologia e Políticas de Desenvolvimento, IN+; IST, Lisboa
Design for uncertainty: Dealing with behaviors and communicating risks to vulnerable communities in urban environments
A Brief Outline of a research initiative at “Laboratórios na Rua”
Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN+, IST Lisbon
A project developed under the framework of IRGC Portugal
Farzaneh Eftekhary, Muriel Padua and Manuel Heitor
A major initiative on design for uncertainty in urban contexts has been developed, including actions to look at risk perceptions, risk communication and stakeholder engagement of lay people from vulnerable communities. The Mouraria neighborhood, in Lisbon, has been used for preliminary fieldwork, which was focused on two distinct areas for risk mitigation, namely: i) non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes; and ii) patterns of consumer behavior in energy usage.
While early studies on risk perception have been mainly based on “unilateral” expert views (i.e., “methods of expert elicitation”), it has become more and more clear that the involvement of lay people is critical for the governance of risks. In particular, vulnerable groups remain an outlier category of this type of analysis1 and has been the main focus of this work.
Our research hypothesis is associated with the idea of "indwelling", firstly introduced by Polanyi2 and recently explored by John Seely Brown3 in terms of understanding learning through processes of knowing, playing and making. It also builds on Piaget’s (1973)4 view of knowledge construction by using “active methods which require that every new truth to be learned be rediscovered or at least reconstructed by the student”, which has motivated Seymour Papert (1991)5 to add the idea that knowledge construction “happens especially felicitously in a context where the learner is consciously engaged in constructing a public entity”6. But, in other words, we are exploring an ancient Chinese idea:
Explain it to me and I will forget
Show it to me and I will remember
Let me do it myself and I will understand it
Lao-Tsé (-570 to -490)
It is under this context that our main research task over the last year has been oriented to provide new evidence on related learning processes through two distinct experiments. First, regarding non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, interviews with targeted communities reveal that many misunderstand the risks they face. Through our experiment, lay people has been encouraged to ride a "stand-alone" bicycle, facilitating physical exercise and making a smoothie (healthy fruit based drink) through the preparation of crushed fruit, yoghurt or milk. This begins a learning and revelatory process concerning adequate diet, exercise and successful ways of reducing their risk by having fun together. But, above all, it facilitates making people aware of diabetes risks and to introduce the debate on the topic among specific and target communities. Experiments were successfully conducted with the elderly and specific muslin groups.
Second, consumer behaviors of energy usage in domestic and public spaces were assessed and monitored through the application of smart energy meters and the consequent attempt to design new products to help lay people to save energy and reduce their energy bill. Three different consumer typologies were assessed in residential properties, including two families in social housing and an apartment with Erasmus students. In addition, energy consumption in a “tasca” was monitored. In both examples, participants learn about energy flows, energy conservation, cost saving and reducing avoidable energy wastage.
Our experiments were conducted by mobilizing groups of university students in a way that also provided new insights into university learning methods7. It builds on our earlier attempts to better understand forms to guide “education for sustainability” at university levels8. In addition, it considers ways of lay people addressing risks, our results provide new insights into the modernization of university education though “hands-on” experimentation in vulnerable communities and the socialization of knowledge and knowledge networks.
This constructionism viewpoint facilitates the “new milieu of discovery, learning, and sharing” mentioned above, and our preliminary experiences suggest that it also facilitates to expose students to a multi-disciplinary design/product development experience and prompt participants to think about systems architecture and built learning communities of students, faculty, and staff.
Following the practices, skills, attitudes and values described by Horgen et al (1999)9 , among many other for process architecture, engineering education must consider that learning a new practice requires moving through discovery, invention, and production not once, but many times, in different contexts and different combinations. Looking at many leading experiences worldwide in design process, we must realize that engineering education has the potential to incorporate the humanities and sciences into a complex system of experiences. The objective is to integrate systems of knowledge and ways of practicing: “without knowledge, practice is limited and without practice, knowledge will never be fully realized”.
The workshop of December 19 considers "engineering artifacts" to foster risk communication, in terms of "design for uncertainty". They consider diverse aspects of energy consumption and mobility patterns (including cargo loading in narrow streets, efficient trash collecting system and transportation in hilly streets of Mouraria) in terms of close communication and interaction of researchers and engineering students with residents in disadvantaged communities. The ultimate goal is to promote strategic and systematic thinking, encouraging communication with people and personifying a culture of learning.
Overall, the projects developed over the last months consider issues transforming knowledge about energy consumption and environmental awareness, as well as address attempt to address the issue of mobility in Mouraria.
PROGRAM: Thursday, 19 December, 4:00pm – 8:00pm (PRELIMINARY – TO BE CONFIRMED)
Manuel Heitor (IN+/IST), Coordination
João Menezes (GABIP/CML)
Session 1, 4.15pm: “Engineering Mouraria”, projects by 1st year engineering students
Introdution, Farzaneh Eftekhary
Session 2, 5.30pm: “Sensing the City”, projects by Master Students
Introdution, Farzaneh Eftekhary
Session 3, 6.45pm: “URBAN Sensors and Systems”, projects by Researchers and Doctorate Students
Introduction, André Pina
Organização e Coordenação
Laboratórios na Rua
Centro de Estudos em Inovação, Tecnologia e Políticas de Desenvolvimento, IN+
Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa
International Risk Governance Council – Portugal